Tuesday, August 25, 2020

An Overview of Solstices and Equinoxes

An Overview of Solstices and Equinoxes The June and December solstices mark the longest and most brief days of the year. The March and September equinoxes, then, mark the two days of every year when day and night are of equivalent length. June Solstice (Approximately June 20-21) The June solstice starts summer in the Northern Hemisphere and winter in the Southern Hemisphere. This day is the longest of the year in the Northern Hemisphere and the briefest of the year in the Southern Hemisphere. North Pole: The North Pole (90 degrees north scope) gets 24 hours of sunshine, as it has been sunlight at the North Pole throughout the previous three months (since the March Equinox). The sun is 66.5 degrees off the apex or 23.5 degrees over the horizon.Arctic Circle: It is light 24 hours per day north of the Arctic Circle (66.5 degrees north) on the June solstice. The sun around early afternoon is 43 degrees off the zenith.Tropic of Cancer: On the June Solstice the sun is legitimately overhead the Tropic of Cancer (23.5 degrees north scope) at noon.Equator: At the equator (zero degrees scope), the day is consistently 12 hours in length. At the equator, the sun rises day by day at 6 a.m. neighborhood time and sets at 6 p.m. neighborhood time. The sun around early afternoon at the equator is 23.5 degrees off the zenith.Tropic of Capricorn: In the Tropic of Capricorn, the sun is low in the sky, at 47 degrees from the peak (23.5 in addition to 23.5).Antarctic Circle: At the Antarctic C ircle (66.5 degrees south), the sun shows up around early afternoon, looking at the skyline and afterward promptly vanishing. All zones south of the Antarctic Circle are dim on the June Solstice. South Pole: By June 21, it has been dull for a quarter of a year at the South Pole (90 degrees south scope). September Equinox (Approximately September 22-23) The September equinox denotes the start of fall in the Northern Hemisphere and spring in the Southern Hemisphere. There are 12 hours of light and 12 hours of dimness at all focuses on the earth’s surface on the two equinoxes. Dawn is at 6 a.m. what's more, dusk is at 6 p.m. nearby (sun powered) time for most focuses on the earth’s surface. North Pole: The sun is not too far off at the North Pole on the September equinox toward the beginning of the day. The sun sets at the North Pole around early afternoon on the September equinox and the North Pole stays dull until the March equinox.Arctic Circle: Experiences 12 hours of light and 12 hours of obscurity. The sun is 66.5 degrees off the peak or 23.5 degrees over the horizon.Tropic of Cancer: Experiences 12 hours of sunlight and 12 hours of haziness. The sun is 23.5 degrees off the zenith.Equator: The sun is straightforwardly overhead the equator around early afternoon on the equinox. On both equinoxes, the sun is legitimately over the equator at noon.Tropic of Capricorn: Experiences 12 hours of light and 12 hours of obscurity. The sun is 23.5 degrees off the zenith.Antarctic Circle: Experiences 12 hours of sunlight and 12 hours of darkness.South Pole: The sun ascends at the South Pole after the Pole has been dim for as far back as a half year (since the March equinox). T he sun ascends to the skyline and it stays light at the South Pole for a half year. Every day, the sun seems to pivot around the South Pole at a similar declination edge in the sky. December Solstice (Approximately December 21-22) The December solstice denotes the start of summer in the Southern Hemisphere and is the longest day of the year in the Southern Hemisphere. It denotes the start of winter in the Northern Hemisphere and is the most brief day of the year in the Northern Hemisphere. North Pole: At the North Pole, it has been dim for a quarter of a year (since the September equinox). It stays dull for another three (until the March equinox).Arctic Circle: The sun shows up around early afternoon, looking at the skyline and afterward momentarily vanishing. All regions north of the Arctic Circle are dim on the December solstice.Tropic of Cancer: The sun is low in the sky, at 47 degrees from the pinnacle (23.5 in addition to 23.5) at noon.Equator: The sun is 23.5 degrees from the apex at noon.Tropic of Capricorn: The sun is legitimately overhead the Tropic of Capricorn on the December solstice.Antarctic Circle: It is light 24 hours per day south of the Antarctic Circle (66.5 degrees north) on the June solstice. The sun around early afternoon is 47 off the zenith.South Pole: The South Pole (90 degrees south scope) gets 24 hours of sunlight, as it has been light at the South Pole throughout the previous three months (since the September equinox). The sun is 66.5 degree s off the apex or 23.5 degrees over the skyline. It will stay light at the South Pole for an additional three months. Walk Equinox (Approximately March 20-21) The March equinox denotes the start of fall in the Southern Hemisphere and spring in the Northern Hemisphere. There are 12 hours of sunshine and 12 hours of dimness at all focuses on the earth’s surface during the two equinoxes. Dawn is at 6 a.m. furthermore, nightfall is at 6 p.m. nearby (sun oriented) time for most focuses on the earth’s surface. North Pole: The sun is not too far off at the North Pole on the March equinox. The sun ascends at the North Pole around early afternoon to the skyline on the March equinox and the North Pole stays light until the September equinox.Arctic Circle: Experiences 12 hours of sunlight and 12 hours of obscurity. The sun is 66.5 off the pinnacle and low in the sky at 23.5 degrees over the horizon.Tropic of Cancer: Experiences 12 hours of sunlight and 12 hours of murkiness. The sun is 23.5 degrees off the zenith.Equator: The sun is straightforwardly overhead the equator around early afternoon on the equinox. During both equinoxes, the sun is legitimately over the equator at noon.Tropic of Capricorn: Experiences 12 hours of light and 12 hours of murkiness. The sun is 23.5 degrees off the zenith.Antarctic Circle: Experiences 12 hours of sunshine and 12 hours of darkness.South Pole: The sun sets at the South Pole around early afternoon after the Pole has been light for as far back as a half year (since the September equinox). The day starts not too far off toward the beginning of the day and before the day's over, the sun has set.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Critical Thinking Assignment: Buddhism

1. The topic of Origin-Those who follow Buddhism have confidence that the universe and god are indeed the very same. (Weider and Gutierrez, 201, 56) Buddhist go to the lessons of Siddhartha Gautama otherwise called Buddha to live right and at death get away from the course of karma. After death, they trust they will get one with the universe. 2. The subject of personality The topic of character in Buddhism is replied in their conviction that every living thing are equivalent. They trust you should live as per the lessons of Buddha so as to get away from karma and resurrection in the afterlife. . The subject of significance/reason For Buddhist the essential objective is to arrive at Nirvana and end all close to home affliction. So as to end enduring one must dispense with every single carnal want and follow the lessons of Buddha which comprises of the â€Å"Four Noble Truths† and the â€Å"Noble Eightfold Path†. 4. The topic of ethical quality Because Buddhist think ever ything is consecrated they follow the †Ethical Code† educated in the â€Å"Eightfold Path† which involves avoid all types of malevolence. The significant focuses in the â€Å"ethical code† are; one must shield from taking a person’s life, taking, unethical sexual conduct, lying and inebriation. 5. The topic of fate Buddha dismissed the thought Hindus hold about karma, which expresses that an individual will keep on being resurrected all through time. He accepted that one could escape through the disavowal of individual wants which lead to disappointment since nothing in this world keeps going. Buddha trained that everybody could arrive at Nirvana as long as they lived right. When they arrive at Nirvana devotees will live in a state where one feel neither loathe nor love. Section 2: Compare and Contrast 1. The topic of inception Christians trust God is the maker of the universe and everything in it. Buddhist adherents follow the possibility that the universe and everything in it are indeed the very same. To the Buddhist everything has consistently existed not at all like for Christians who accept there was a starting which is clarified in the book of Genesis. 2. The topic of Identity-In Genesis 1:27 the good book expresses that we are made in the picture of God. Similarly as we acquire characteristics from our folks we acquire qualities from God. Buddhist accept people and creatures are unified with the universe and both are equivalent in significance. 3. The topic of significance and reason For Christian’s the importance and motivation behind people is found in John 17:3. John reveals to us that we are to know God through his Son Jesus Christ. We are to have a nearby close connection with God. As represetatives of Christ we are to proceed to convey to the world what we think about Jesus, who makes this relationship with God conceivable. Buddhist don't have faith in an individual God. They accept god is far off and doesn't become included actually associated with people’s lives. The Buddhist accept their fundamental reason in to get away from the karma and arrive at Nirvana where they will live with no craving. 4. The subject of ethical quality Without God we can't figure out what activities are good and bad (Weider and Gutierrez, 2011, p 61) Christian devotees follow the expression of God as a manual for live their live. The book of scriptures calls devotees to cherish God and to adore their neighbor as they love themselves. These two rules shields adherents from erring against their neighbor. Buddhist adherent to Buddha’s â€Å"Four Noble Truths† and the â€Å"Eight Noble Truths†. Their â€Å"Ethical Conduct† area says an individual should maintain â€Å"right discourse, right activity, and right occupation. † These codes will free an individual from the pattern of karma. Not at all like Christians Buddhist don't have confidence in pardoning the manner in which Jesus offers it. Anyway the two convictions concur that regard is inescapable to live in harmony. 5. The topic of predetermination Christians put stock in paradise and hellfire. The distinction in where an individual will go relies upon their acknowledgment in Jesus as Lord and Savior of their lives. Atonement of wrongdoing is trailed by the pardoning of Christ. A Christian will live forever in paradise on the off chance that they acknowledge the pardoning offered by Jesus Christ. Buddhist accept â€Å"salvation† must be worked out. As indicated by the lessons of Buddha anybody can arrive at Nirvana as long as the individual attempts to act â€Å"right† during their lifetime.

Monday, August 10, 2020

Stomp the Yard, MIT style

Stomp the Yard, MIT style I am sure that many of you have read blogs about Greek life from some of our current all-star bloggers like Paul or even some of the superstar blogger alumni like Bryan, Melis, or Sam. What you haven”t heard about are the organizations that compromise the National Pan-Hellenic Council, Inc. ( NPHC also referred to as The Divine 9) and the National Association of Latino Fraternal Organizations ( NALFO ). NPHC is a national umbrella organization for the nine historically black fraternities and sororities. Similarly, NALFO is the umbrella organization for 23 historically Latino Greek organizations. Throughout MIT”s history, Greek life has been an important part of the social and extracurricular fabric of the MIT community. In fact, the first sorority ever founded at MIT was the historically black organization, Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Inc. (AKA) in 1977. The second sorority ever founded at the Institute in 1980 was the distinguished Xi Tau chapter of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc. Keep in mind though, Greek life at MIT is as diverse as its student body and includes NPHC (Divine 9) organizations as well as historically Latino fraternities and sororities ( NALFO ). At MIT, like many New England institutions, NPHC NALFO college chapters are intercollegiate meaning; the members in a chapter include students not only from MIT but often other schools within the greater Boston area providing immeasurable opportunities for meeting students all over New England. In keeping with MIT”s Latin motto, Mens et Manus, “mind hand’, our historically Black and Latino Greek organizations keep in step through pioneering community outreach projects. Members of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity participate in the March of Dimes every year raising thousands of dollars for premature infant research endeavoring to save lives. The AKAs Deltas participate in Boston”s annual Walk for Hunger to combat the hunger pervasive in many of Massachusetts” communities and families. The women of Sigma Lambda Upsilon Sorority, a newer organization to campus, promote adult literacy efforts. In an effort to introduce you to a slice of our Greek community, each organization offered a snapshot of their own, unique chapters below. For those who will be attending the whirlwind extravaganza that is CPW in April, all of these organizations, as well as many others, will be present to meet with you! Enjoy!!!! Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc. On the ice-cold Tuesday of December 4th, 1906, Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Incorporated was founded on the campus of Cornell University in Ithaca, NY by seven dynamic individuals whom we affectionately refer to as the fraternity”s Jewels. It was the FIRST institution of its kind for collegians, a precursor to the other intercollegiate, historically black Greek-letter organizations. The Rho Nu Chapter of Alpha was founded on Tuesday, September 26th, 1989 and encompasses the campuses of MIT, Harvard University, and Tufts University. We, as a fraternity, pride ourselves on upholding the ideals of our brotherhood, which are Manly Deeds, Scholarship, and Love for all Mankind. The Rho Nu Chapter stands firmly on these principles and is always in active pursuit of innovative ways to serve our community. During a time when society offered minorities “narrowly circumscribed opportunity’, Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Incorporated was founded in order to promote a culture of leadership and excellence among African-American men, to aid them in the service and uplifting of their communities. Alpha men have made invaluable contributions to our society, and have helped to shape our nation”s history. The likes of Thurgood Marshall, W.E.B. DuBois, Martin Luther King, Jr., Duke Ellington, and Cornel West number among our ranks. The Rho Nu Chapter upholds this legacy of excellence, housing within our lineage not just doctors, lawyers, politicians, CEOs, entertainers, but agents of change. We celebrate the diversity of the students who join our organization, and every brother from each school contributes something unique and valuable. If you are interested in learning more about the Brotherhood dedicated to the uplift of our communities and the better making of men, please do some research about our organization. Ask questions. Seek answers. We, the brothers of the Rho Nu Chapter, pride ourselves on being approachable and are always more than willing to speak about our Fraternity; be proactive by reaching out to the Brotherhood. Men of Alpha are the first of all; we are the servants of all; and we shall transcend all. Good luck in your studies and look out for our next program. Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Inc. Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Incorporated was organized on the campus of Howard University in Washington, DC during the 1907-1908 academic year, making it the oldest Greek-letter organization established by African-American college-trained women. The small group of women who organized the Sorority was conscious of a privileged position as college-trained women of color, just one generation removed from slavery. They were resolute that their college experiences should be as meaningful and productive as possible. ahref=http://www.aka1908.orgAlpha Kappa Alpha was founded to apply that determination. The Lambda Upsilon Chapter of Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Incorporated was chartered on October 8, 1977 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). The inspiration for the Chapter was Mary Hope, a dean at MIT, who felt that an effective group was needed through which Black women on predominantly White campuses could communicate and help each other. Lambda Upsilons membership consists of women from MIT, Harvard University, and Wellesley College. Through the years, Lambda Upsilon has been committed to sisterhood and Service to All Mankind. It has participated in community service in the Cambridge and Boston communities. It has also hosted service projects on each of the five Sorority”s platforms involving entrepreneurship, economics, the Black family, technology, and health. Some of our events have included “Improving, Strengthening, and Troubleshooting Friendships and Relationships in Black America’, a “Financial Fitness’ workshop, and “AKAerobics’. Through annual events, the Chapter fulfills the purpose of the Sorority, which is to cultivate and encourage high scholastic and ethical standards, to promote unity and friendship among college women, to study and help alleviate problems concerning girls and women in order to improve their social stature, to maintain a progressive interest in college life, and to be of service to all mankind. Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc. For over 25 years, the Xi Tau Chapter of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Incorporated has proudly served Cambridge and surrounding communities. Committed to Sisterhood, Scholarship, and Service, the sophisticated women of Xi Tau are actively engaged in public service initiatives, social action programming, and political reform. Xi Tau Deltas are innovative and creative women, who never rest upon tradition, but continue, in the manner of our noble sororitys distinguished history, impacting the lives of African Americans. The women of Xi Tau hail from the eight schools of our charter: Babson College, Bentley College, Brandeis University, Harvard University, Lesley University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Tufts University, and Wellesley College. Women of Accomplishment, Xi Tau Deltas continue to achieve academic excellence, make strides in our chosen career fields, and remain sisters to each other. Among our ranks are dozens of Harvard Business School graduates, several doctors, lawyers judges, professors, women of the cloth, accomplished authors, community leaders, two Rhode Scholars, and too many prestigious scholarship recipients to name. Please click on the links to visit our national and chapter websites! If you have any questions about our chapter, contact us at [emailprotected] Sigma Lambda Upsilon/Señoritas Latinas Unidas Sorority, Inc. On December 1st, 1987 at Binghamton University, Founding Mothers Cynthia Santiago-Guzman, Adriana Zamora, Carmen Ibeth Garcia-Quiñones and Carol Elizabeth Torres created an organization that would not only serve as a voice for women in an academic setting, but would also provide sincere sisterhood and unconditional support while actively promoting academic achievement, service to the community, and cultural enrichment. Our dedication and relentless commitment to Sigma Lambda Upsilon/Señoritas Latinas Sorority, Inc. and to each other is why we consider our sisterhood lasting Hasta La Muerte! In the spring of 2001, the Chi Undergraduate Chapter was established by Hermanas Diagneris Garcia “Ejemplar’ and Blanca Padilla “Veloz.’ These two women felt a strong need to bring an organization to the Boston Area that would not only foster sisterhood but above all, leadership and service to the community in and out of the campus setting. After much research, they sought out the Hermanas of Sigma Lambda Upsilon/Señoritas Latinas Sorority, Inc., where they found these values embodied. Chi Chapter is currently a city-wide chapter. Contact the Chi Chapter at [emailprotected] _________________ A HUGE thank you to Ally Piche who wrote the intro and compiled information from the fraternities and sororities featured in this post. Youre the best Ally!!!!

Saturday, May 23, 2020

Apes (Hominoidea) The Upright Primates

Apes (Hominoidea) are a group of primates that includes 22 species. Apes, also referred to as hominoids, include chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans, and gibbons. Although humans are classified within the Hominoidea, the term ape is not applied to humans and refers instead to all non-human hominoids. In fact, the term ape has a history of ambiguity. At one time it was used to refer to any tail-less primate which included two species of macaques (neither of which belong to the hominoidea). Two subcategories of apes are also commonly identified, great apes (which includes chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans) and the lesser apes (gibbons). Characteristics of Hominoids Most hominoids, with the exception of humans and gorillas, are skilled and agile tree climbers. Gibbons are the most skilled tree-dwellers of all hominoids. They can swing and leap from branch to branch, moving quickly and efficiently through the trees. This mode of locomotion used by gibbons is referred to as brachiation. Compared to other primates, hominoids have a lower center of gravity, a shortened spine relative to their body length, a broad pelvis, and wide chest. Their general physique gives them a more upright posture than other primates. Their shoulder blades lie on their back, an arrangement that imparts a wide range of motion. Hominoids also lack a tail. Together these characteristics give hominoids better balance than their closest living relatives, the Old World monkeys. Hominoids are therefore more stable when standing on two feet or when swinging and hanging from tree branches. Like most primates, hominoids form social groups, the structure of which varies from species to species. Lesser apes form monogamous pairs while gorillas live in troops numbering in the range of 5 to 10 or more individuals. Chimpanzees also form troops that can number as many as 40 to 100 individuals. Orangutans are the exception to the primate social norm, they lead solitary lives. Hominoids are highly intelligent and capable problem solvers. Chimpanzees and orangutans make and use simple tools. Scientists studying orangutans in captivity have shown them capable of using sign language, solving puzzles, and recognizing symbols. Many species of hominoids are under threat of habitat destruction, poaching, and hunting for bushmeat and skins. Both species of chimpanzees are endangered. The eastern gorilla is endangered and the western gorilla is critically endangered. Eleven of sixteen species of gibbons are endangered or critically endangered. The diet of hominoids includes leaves, seeds, nuts, fruit, and a limited amount of animal prey. Apes inhabit tropical rainforests throughout parts of western and central Africa as well as Southeast Asia. Orangutans are found only in Asia, chimpanzees inhabit west and central Africa, gorillas inhabit central Africa, and gibbons inhabit southeast Asia. Classification Apes are classified within the following taxonomic hierarchy: Animals Chordates Vertebrates Tetrapods Amniotes Mammals Primates Apes The term ape refers to a group of primates that includes chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans, and gibbons. The scientific name Hominoidea refers to apes (chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans, and gibbons) as well as humans (that is, it ignores the fact that humans prefer not to label ourselves as apes). Of all hominoids, the gibbons are the most diverse with 16 species. The other hominoid groups are less diverse and include chimpanzees (2 species), gorillas (2 species), orangutans (2 species), and humans (1 species). The hominoid fossil record is incomplete, but scientists estimate that ancient hominoids diverged from Old World monkeys between 29 and 34 million years ago. The first modern hominoids appeared about 25 million years ago. Gibbons were the first group to split from the other groups, about 18 million years ago, followed by the orangutan lineage (about 14 million years ago), the gorillas (about 7 million years ago). The most recent split that has occurred is that between humans and chimpanzees, about 5 million years ago. The closest living relatives to the hominoids are the Old World monkeys.

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Risk Management At General Motors - 766 Words

Risk management at General Motors in the past dealt with primarily disasters related to production stoppages, supplier issues and bankruptcies as well as currency fluctuations and manipulation around the world. General Motors identified and mitigated these and other risks through an organizations process called ‘active risk management’. GM Risk management, which refers to the process of evaluating the risks, classifying and organizing, and reducing risks is shown in the below risk evaluation chart. Risk evaluation, classification, and management was utilized for large and small projects alike and organizational decisions at General Motors. With respect to the ignition switch recall, the risks were not captured and distributed properly to the affected departments in this real world project change of the ignition switch. Engineering, validation and purchasing worked in silos, allowing a substandard product to enter the parts and production supply. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Western Roman Empire †the Rise Fall Free Essays

string(29) " used for urban development\." Western Roman Empire | A map depicting the separate empires of Rome| Mediterranean Society: The Roman Phase From Kingdom To Republic The Etruscans and Rome (Previous Wiki notes) There are many different versions on how Rome started the ones told to kids are very simple with very few names: . Ancient Rome for Kids  The story of Romulus and Remus for adults have dates, more names and details:  Wolf Country, Myth and Stories You can find many versions of myths, however the version the text book talks about Aeneas, a refugee from Troy who migrated to Italy when Greek invaders destroyed his land. Tow of his decedents, twins; Romulus and Remus, almost didn’t survive infancy because and evil uncle abandoned them by a flooded Tiber River. We will write a custom essay sample on The Western Roman Empire – the Rise Fall or any similar topic only for you Order Now A she-wolf found them and nursed them back to health. When the boys grew older, Romulus founded the city of Rome and established himself as its first kind in 753 B. C. E. However scholars tell a different story. Some Greek historians believe that Aeneas settled at Rome, which was a small city-state. In the fourth century B. C. , Rome began to expand and Romans came into greater contact with the Greeks, which suggest that Aeneas has a role in the creation of the great city. In the first century B. C. , the Roman Poet Virgil developed the Aeneas myth in his epic poem the  Aeneid, which talked about Aeneas’ journey to Rome. Augustus, the first Roman emperor and emperor during Virgil’s time, and Julius Caesar, his great uncle and predecessor as the Roman ruler, were known to be decedents of Aeneas. ( Information founded in the article:  This Day in History: Rome founded) The text book talks about how Indo-Europeans migrated crossed the Alps and settled through the Italian peninsula, including the future site of Rome. The Roman Republic and Its Constitution The Romans got rid of the last Etruscan king in 509 B. C. E. The republican constution had two consuls; military and civil. These consuls were elected by an assembly that was dominated by the high class, or patricians. There was also a senate which advised the consuls and helped ratify major decisions. Because both the senate and consuls represented only the interests of the patricians there were many conflicts between the patricians and the lower class, or plebeians. To solve these conflicts, the patricians gave the plebeians tribunes, or people the plebeians could elect to speak for them. The tribunes had the  power  to intervene and veto decisions. The plebeians began to gain  power, by the early third century B. C. E the plebeians’ tribunes dominated Roman politics. From Republic To Empire Imperial Expansion and Domestic Problems During the second and first centuries B. C. E, the relations between the classes were so strained that there was much conflict and violence. Two brothers, Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus worked to spread the land possesion and tried to limit the ammount of land a certain person could hold. Unfortunately though, they were both assasinated for fear of gaining influence over Roman affairs. The people that were in control of the political  power, were of a small class that used the power to only help themselves and their class. In 87 B. C. E Marius marched on Rome and during the first century B. C. E, Rome was in civil war. When Marius died the next year, Sulla planned to take power and soon did in 83 B. C. E. Many conservatives supported Sulla because he imposed many conservative legislation. The Foundation of Empire Julius Caesar seized Rome in 49 B. C. E by being a very popular public figure. He believed strongly in  social  reform and conquered Gaul. He was responsible for a lot of  social  reforms and changed the gonvernment to centralized control. Caesar claimed the title â€Å"dictator for life†, which earned him his assasination in 44 B. C. E. After Caesar was killed, his adopted son, Octavian, after defeating Mark Antony, took over Rome and brought civil conflict to an end. The senate bestowed the title â€Å"Augustus,† to him in 27 B. C. E. He ran a monarchy disguised as a republic. While he was in power, a new standing army was created and the imperial institutions began to take root. Continuing Expansion and Integration of the Empire The two centuries following Augustus’s rule, the Romans conquered lands in the Mediterranean basin, western Europe, and down the Nile to Kush. For two and a half centuries into the third century a long era of peace was prevelant among economic and political integration, this was called  pax romana, or â€Å"Roman peace†. Another important Roman advance was the road and highway system. The new road systems created were very well engineered and allowed for extremely quick and urgent travel, which improved the postal system extremely. Also during this time, Romans began developing a system of written law at about 450 B. C. E. They developed a system called the Twelve Tables, which was a basic law code for citizens for the early republic. Economy and Society In the Roman Mediterranean Trade and Urbanization Latifundia owners grew various crops to export in North Africa, Egypt, and Sicily. Ships carried several hundred tons of crops to cities for consumers. Other cities and regions could now focus on cultivating fruits and vegetables or manufacturing goods. Archaeologists have uncovered a pottery factory north of Rome that probably employed hundreds of workers and had a mixing vat that could hold more than 10,568 gallons (40,000 liters) of clay. The Mediterranean lake became an essential lake for the Romans because it linked many cities and was used for trading. They called the lake  mare nostrum  which means â€Å"our sea. † The Roman military and navy kept the seas mostly free of pirates to ensure that cargoes could move freely over long distances. The city of Rome received taxes, tributes, booty and other wealth from military expansion. Rome also received most of the profit from Mediterranean trade. The money was used for urban development. You read "The Western Roman Empire – the Rise Fall" in category "Papers" In the first century C. E. , there were about 10,000 statues, 700 pools, 500 fountains, and 36 monumental arches. The state financed the construction of temples, bath houses, public buildings, stadiums, and aqueducts. The aqueducts were very important because they brought fresh water to Rome. They used concrete (invented by Roman engineers) to build the aqueducts because it is very strong. The population increased dramatically because construction employed hundreds of thousands of workers. Family and Society in Roman Times The eldest male was usually the head of the common Roman family and ruled as  Pater Familias, or â€Å"father of the family†. As the pater families, the father could do anything he wanted with his children, like planning weddings or even executing them. Despite Roman law, women could hold high influence within the family. The women also would help plan weddings and even help with family finances by finding loopholes in Roman Law. As time went on, new classes of people accumulated lots of private wealth for themselves. The wealthy would live in palaces and eat exotic dishes with animal tongues in them. If there are wealthy people, there are lots of poor people, who became a big problem in Rome. The poor would often riot, but the government used a technique called â€Å"Bread and Circuses† where they would supply the poor with subsidized grain and spectacular public entertainment. One big part of Roman society was the slaves. About one third (Two sixths, three ninths, etc. ,) of the population were slaves; most of which worked on Latifundia, while others worked mines. During the second and first centuries, slaves would often revolt. One of the more serious revolts being in 73 BCE where 70,000 slaves rebelled was led by Spartacus. City slaves had a much less difficult life. Female slaves worked as servants, whereas educated or talented male slaves could lead comfortable lives, such as Epictetus, who became a Stoic philosopher. Some slaves hoped for manumission, so they could leave the slave life behind. This was not mandatory for owners, so they slaves still had to work under the owner’s command until they might be set free. The owners could do anything they wanted to with the slaves. The Cosmopolitan Mediterranean Greek Philosophy and Religions of Salavation The Romans believed in Gods and Goddesses who intervened in human affairs, and tutelary deities who looked after the welfare of families. As the Roman empire grew, they experienced more cultures, which lead to them adopting deities from other people and adapted them to their own purposes. As well as using other cultures’ deities, they also borrowed religious practices, like animal sacrifices. The Greeks inspired the Romans in ways like rational thought and philosophy. One example is the Stoicism. The Stoics â€Å"sought to identify a set of universal moral standards based on nature and reason that would transcend local ethical codes†. Marcus Tullius Cicero (106-43 b. c. e. ) was a Roman thinker who adopted the Stoic values. In adapting Hellenistic thought to Roman needs, Cicero drew heavily from Stoics’ moral and ethical teachings. Cicero believed that the pursuit of justice is a person’s duty and was against those who sought wealth and power through immoral ways. The majority of people believed in religions of salvation because it gave them a promise of future existence. Religions of salvation became key features of Mediterranean society in the Helenistic times. The roads of the Roman empire not only served as trade routes, but as openings for the word of religious salvation to spread. Mithraism started as a cult for Mithras, a god for the sun and light. Soldiers in Anatolia adapted the cult to their own interests, and related it to strength and courage rather than the sun and light. The cult of Mithras did not allow women, but cults for goddesses like Isis spread. The cult of Isis was the most popular before Christianity spread. All of these religions spread through the Mediterranean basin. Judaism and Early Christianity In an attempt to encourage political loyalty, emperors often created state cults to worship the emperors as gods. The Jews believed that the creation of these cults was totally outside of the belief of their religion. Jews often refused to pay taxes to the emperors who had claimed themselves to be gods. As the Romans began to spread into the eastern Mediterranean region the relations between the Romans and the Jews became more and more tense. Between the third and first centuries B. C. E. the Jews mounted several rebellious attacks against the Romans but ultimately failed. The Roman forces outfought the rebels during the Jewish War of 66 to 70 C. E. Some Jews actively fought the Romans and others founded new sects that looked for saviors. They observed a strict moral code and participated in rituals designed to reinforce a state of community. They also looked for a savior who would take them away from Roman rule and lead them to establish a community in which they could practice faith without interference. The early Christians probably had little contact with them but had many of the same concerns. Christians formed their community around Jesus of Nazareth. | Jesus of Nazareth| The Fall of the Roman Empire Internal Decay in the Roman Empire Although it is perceived that the collapse of the Roman empire only had one cause, there were actually multiple causes that caused the fall of the empire. The combination of internal problems and external pressures proved deadly for the civilization. Internal political problems included internal opposition, which was mostly the work of the 26 claimants. The claimants were successors to the imperial throne, and were nicknamed â€Å"barracks emperors. † Their deaths were violent, often times because of one another, and held their power for short periods of time. The shear size of the Roman empire also proved problematic for the future of Rome. Central governments were difficult to control over large areas, and epidemics soon spread like wildfire over the uncontrolled region. Eventually, self-sufficient economies took the place of a large central government. Diocletian, who reigned from 284-305 CE, attempted to solve the problem of size by dividing the empire into two administrative districts. Two co-emperors ruled the districts, with the aid of lieutenants and 4 officials, or tetrarchs. Only these officials were allowed to minister. Diocletian was a skilled administrator who brought Rome’s armies under control, and strengthened the imperial currency. Although his war strategies were more effective than his economic ones, this helped stabilize Rome’s economy. His retirement later resulted in civil war. Constantine was the son of Diocletian’s co-ruler Constantius became the emperor. Constantine wanted to become the sole emperor of Rome, so he reunited the Eastern and Western districts of Rome. Constantine wanted a new capital for the new united empire, so he built the city of Constantinople. Old problems of centralized government arose from this reunion, as both the population and economy of reunited Rome declined. There were no resources left to protect the new empire and its people, ending the reign of Constantine. Germanic Invasions and the Fall of the Western Roman Empire Military threat from migratory Germanic peoples and Germanic invasions brought an end to Roman authority in the western half of the empire, while the eastern half survived another millennium. The Visigroths, the most famous of this group of migrants, adopted Roman culture and laws, but were advised to settle outside of the imperial boundaries. The Huns, who migrated from Central Asia, were brilliantly led by the warrior-king Atilla, who organized the Huns into a nearly unstoppable military unit. They attacked Germanic peoples living on Roman empire boundaries. The Huns disappeared after Atilla’s death, but the Germanic peoples had such an effect from their violence that they began to seek refuge in Rome. They scattered in settlements throughout the Western Roman empire, and later overthrew the governments they were living under. The Visiogroths, under the leadership of Alaric, sacked Rome in 410 CE. Odovacer, a Germanic ruler, deposed Romulus Agustulus, ending the Western Roman empire. Cultural Change in the Late Roman Empire Germanic peoples governed and organized society with their own traditions now that they lacked the guardianship of the Romans. They adopted some Roman influence, mostly Roman laws which resonated deeply within their systems. Roman and Germanic traditions later blended to form Medieval Europe. Christianity survived the Roman empire collapse, and it became a huge influencer in the region. Constantine promulgated the  Edict of Milan,  which allowed Christians to practice their faith openly in the Roman empire. Constantine himself converts to Christianity, and the later emperor, Theodosius, makes Christianity the official religion of the Roman empire. Christianity historically resonated with the lower classes and women because of its equal nature, but during the 4th century CE, that began to change when intellectual elites began to take more interest in Christianity. St. Augustine (354-430 CE) was he most important and influential figure in the spread of Christianity after the collapse of the Western Roman empire. He was a bishop of Hippo, (a town in Northern Africa) and worked to reconcile Christianity with Greek and Roman philosophical traditions, and to articulate Christianity with the upper classes. Controversy arose within the religion, putting tension between people who interpreted the Christian doctrine in different ways. The foundation of the institutional church formed shortly after these disputes began to arise. The bishop of Rome, known as the Pope, and 4 patriarchs, were the church officials. Bishops and patriarchs would assemble in church councils to solve disputes, often times over the interpretations of Christine doctrines. In the meantime, missionaries converted Germanic peoples to Christianity. How to cite The Western Roman Empire – the Rise Fall, Papers

Saturday, May 2, 2020

Survivor and Group Dynamics free essay sample

This paper looks how the TV series Survivor reflects true group dynamics . This paper starts by defining group dynamics and examines the popular TV series Survivor exemplifies this concept. It states that TV viewers experience a taste of reality when watching the show as it stars real people. The essence of the series is forming a solid group and thereafter dismantling it. From the paper: Television, like most media forms, is intended to show, rather than simply tell, something about the human condition. As a viewer, television has the capacity to act as a mirror into our own lives, or the lives of people we know. Current television shows allow viewers to leave the stresses of their own lives, and become a part of the lives of characters we relate to, or who are so far from our own experiences that we forget about our own problems, anxieties and worries, to participate in the often tranquil or happily exciting lives of another person. We will write a custom essay sample on Survivor and Group Dynamics or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page